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落实未成年人保护法 健全未成年人学校保护体系

——教育部政策法规司负责人就《未成年人学校保护规定》答记者问

2020-06-01 来源:教育部

  2021年(nian)6月1日(ri),教育(yu)部(bu)(bu)(bu)部(bu)(bu)(bu)长陈宝生签署中华(hua)人(ren)民共(gong)和国教育(yu)部(bu)(bu)(bu)令第(di)50号,公布《未成年(nian)人(ren)学(xue)校保护规定(ding)》(以下简称《规定(ding)》),自2021年(nian)9月1日(ri)起(qi)施行。教育(yu)部(bu)(bu)(bu)政策法规司(si)负责人(ren)就(jiu)《规定(ding)》有关问题回答了记(ji)者提问。

  1. 问:请简单介绍一下制定《规定》的背景和过程?

  答:未(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)是祖国的(de)(de)(de)未(wei)(wei)(wei)来。党中央、国务(wu)院高度(du)重视(shi)未(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)保(bao)护(hu)(hu)工作,就(jiu)此作出(chu)一系列重大决策部(bu)署。2020年(nian)(nian)(nian)10月(yue),习(xi)近平总(zong)书记签署主席令,颁布新修订的(de)(de)(de)未(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)保(bao)护(hu)(hu)法(fa),新法(fa)于今年(nian)(nian)(nian)6月(yue)1日(ri)起施(shi)行,其中专章对(dui)学校保(bao)护(hu)(hu)作出(chu)规定(ding)。保(bao)护(hu)(hu)未(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)是全社会的(de)(de)(de)职责,也是学校的(de)(de)(de)法(fa)定(ding)义务(wu)。近年(nian)(nian)(nian)来,教育部(bu)和(he)(he)地(di)方教育行政部(bu)门不断加(jia)(jia)强(qiang)和(he)(he)改进中小学管(guan)理,出(chu)台(tai)了一系列文件,近期又出(chu)台(tai)了加(jia)(jia)强(qiang)“五项管(guan)理”等(deng)有(you)关(guan)文件,取(qu)得(de)了明显成(cheng)效。但是,学校未(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)保(bao)护(hu)(hu)中仍然(ran)存在着对(dui)保(bao)护(hu)(hu)职责认(ren)识不全面、相关(guan)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)可操(cao)作性不强(qiang)、保(bao)护(hu)(hu)体制(zhi)(zhi)机(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)不健(jian)全等(deng)问题(ti),迫切需要系统整合现(xian)有(you)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)、构(gou)建未(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)学校保(bao)护(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)体系,把中央要求和(he)(he)上位法(fa)规定(ding)落(luo)细(xi)落(luo)实,提(ti)升学校未(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)保(bao)护(hu)(hu)工作效能。

  2018年,教育(yu)部即着手研(yan)究(jiu)建(jian)立学校(xiao)未成(cheng)(cheng)年人保(bao)护(hu)制度,在(zai)新修订(ding)的未成(cheng)(cheng)年人保(bao)护(hu)法发布后,加(jia)快推进(jin)起草工作,委托相关高(gao)校(xiao)、研(yan)究(jiu)机构(gou)开(kai)展课题研(yan)究(jiu)论(lun)证,先后赴上海(hai)、江苏、四川等地(di)开(kai)展深(shen)入(ru)调研(yan),广泛听取基(ji)层(ceng)教育(yu)部门(men)、学校(xiao)、教师和(he)学生(sheng)家长(zhang)的意(yi)见,并征求了全国人大(da)常委会(hui)法工委、最高(gao)人民(min)检(jian)察院、公安部、民(min)政部等部门(men)意(yi)见。在(zai)此基(ji)础上形成(cheng)(cheng)了《规定》,于2021年6月1日(ri)正式发布。

  2. 问:《规定》的适用范围是什么?

  答(da):《规(gui)(gui)定》的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)适用(yong)范(fan)围是普通中小学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)、中等(deng)职业学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)。幼儿(er)园(yuan)、特殊(shu)教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)有更(geng)多的(de)(de)(de)保护(hu)(hu)(hu)、保育(yu)(yu)、照(zhao)(zhao)护(hu)(hu)(hu)要(yao)求(qiu),因(yin)此(ci)规(gui)(gui)定其(qi)要(yao)依据(ju)《规(gui)(gui)定》落(luo)实对(dui)学(xue)生权益的(de)(de)(de)保护(hu)(hu)(hu)要(yao)求(qiu),并参照(zhao)(zhao)《规(gui)(gui)定》结(jie)合实际建(jian)(jian)立(li)相应保护(hu)(hu)(hu)制(zhi)度(du),有针(zhen)对(dui)性地加强对(dui)未(wei)成年(nian)人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)保护(hu)(hu)(hu);但(dan)是对(dui)于幼儿(er)园(yuan)、特殊(shu)教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)及其(qi)教(jiao)职工侵(qin)害在(zai)园(yuan)、在(zai)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)未(wei)成年(nian)人(ren)合法权益的(de)(de)(de),应当适用(yong)《规(gui)(gui)定》第七(qi)章(zhang)的(de)(de)(de)问责方式从重予以处理(li)。考虑到《规(gui)(gui)定》主(zhu)要(yao)针(zhen)对(dui)学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)这(zhei)一特定组织构建(jian)(jian)全面保护(hu)(hu)(hu)体(ti)系(xi),而(er)培训机(ji)构、托育(yu)(yu)机(ji)构等(deng)不具备学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)组织架构,因(yin)此(ci)并未(wei)规(gui)(gui)定其(qi)适用(yong)《规(gui)(gui)定》,但(dan)有关机(ji)构仍(reng)应当落(luo)实未(wei)成年(nian)人(ren)保护(hu)(hu)(hu)法的(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求(qiu),可以参考《规(gui)(gui)定》建(jian)(jian)立(li)健全内部(bu)的(de)(de)(de)管理(li)制(zhi)度(du)。

  3. 问:《规定》主要保护学生的哪些权益?

  答:《规(gui)(gui)定》遵循全面(mian)保(bao)护的(de)原则,依据宪法、民法典、未(wei)成年(nian)人(ren)保(bao)护法、教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)法等(deng)法律,系统规(gui)(gui)定了学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)应(ying)(ying)当保(bao)护的(de)未(wei)成年(nian)人(ren)基(ji)本(ben)权(quan)利(li),即(ji)平等(deng)权(quan)、生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)命健康与自由、人(ren)格权(quan)、隐私(si)权(quan)、受教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)权(quan)、休息权(quan)、财产权(quan)、肖(xiao)像权(quan)和知识(shi)产权(quan)、参与权(quan)、申诉(su)权(quan)等(deng)权(quan)利(li),专(zhuan)设“一般保(bao)护”一章予以规(gui)(gui)定。其(qi)中也有很(hen)多新的(de)提(ti)法和要求,比如,针对一些学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)出于安全和便(bian)于管(guan)理(li)的(de)需要,限制学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)课间(jian)活动和同学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)之间(jian)正常交往,不(bu)利(li)于营(ying)造生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)动活泼的(de)教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)、保(bao)护学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活力和全面(mian)发展的(de)情况,明确(que)提(ti)出:学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)不(bu)得设置侵(qin)犯学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)人(ren)身(shen)自由的(de)管(guan)理(li)措施,不(bu)得对学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)在课间(jian)及(ji)其(qi)他非教(jiao)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)时间(jian)的(de)正常交流、游戏、出教(jiao)室活动等(deng)言行自由设置不(bu)必(bi)要的(de)约(yue)束。再比如,《规(gui)(gui)定》禁止学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)、教(jiao)师公开学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)考试(shi)成绩(ji)和排名,出发点是保(bao)护学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)隐私(si)和自尊心,减少攀(pan)比、避(bi)免(mian)歧视(shi),缓解应(ying)(ying)试(shi)压(ya)力;但是同时规(gui)(gui)定学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)应(ying)(ying)当采取(qu)措施,便(bian)利(li)家长知道学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)成绩(ji)等(deng)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)业(ye)信(xin)息。此外(wai),《规(gui)(gui)定》落(luo)实“破五唯(wei)”的(de)要求,明确(que)禁止学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)宣(xuan)传升学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)情况,避(bi)免(mian)唯(wei)分数(shu)、唯(wei)升学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)率(lv)对学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)和学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)进行评(ping)价,以营(ying)造良好的(de)教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态(tai)和学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)发展环(huan)境(jing)。

  4. 问:《规定》就防治欺凌建立了哪些工作机制?

  答(da):校园欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)是(shi)近年(nian)来中央关心、社会关注(zhu)、群众关切的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)教(jiao)育(yu)领域热点难点问题。此前教(jiao)育(yu)部(bu)等(deng)部(bu)门(men)就防(fang)治校园欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)印发(fa)(fa)了专门(men)文(wen)件(jian),新修订(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)未成年(nian)人保(bao)护(hu)法也对(dui)(dui)(dui)此做了专门(men)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)。《规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)》将有(you)关要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)进(jin)(jin)一(yi)(yi)(yi)步具体(ti)化,进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)了科学(xue)(xue)(xue)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)设计,构建(jian)了防(fang)治学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)规(gui)则体(ti)系。一(yi)(yi)(yi)是(shi)明确学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)概念(nian)。规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding):学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)之(zhi)间,在年(nian)龄、身体(ti)或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)人数(shu)等(deng)方面(mian)占优势(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)(yi)方蓄意(yi)或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)恶(e)意(yi)对(dui)(dui)(dui)另一(yi)(yi)(yi)方实(shi)施(shi)(shi)相关行(xing)(xing)为,或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)以(yi)(yi)其(qi)他方式欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)压、侮辱另一(yi)(yi)(yi)方,造成人身伤害(hai)、财产(chan)损(sun)失(shi)或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)精神损(sun)害(hai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),可(ke)(ke)(ke)以(yi)(yi)认(ren)(ren)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)为构成欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)。这(zhei)一(yi)(yi)(yi)概念(nian)强调(diao)了主(zhu)体(ti)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)性(xing)(xing)、主(zhu)观上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)故意(yi)性(xing)(xing)、后果上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)伤害(hai)性(xing)(xing),有(you)助于(yu)把学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)和(he)(he)(he)校园暴力(li)、学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)间正常(chang)(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)嬉(xi)闹等(deng)区别开来。二是(shi)明确学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)行(xing)(xing)为表现(xian)。《规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)》归纳了侵(qin)犯身体(ti)、侮辱人格、侵(qin)犯财产(chan)、恶(e)意(yi)排(pai)斥(chi)、网络诽谤(bang)或(huo)(huo)传播隐私(si)等(deng)五(wu)类欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)行(xing)(xing)为,为欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)认(ren)(ren)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)和(he)(he)(he)处(chu)理提供具体(ti)指引。三是(shi)建(jian)立(li)(li)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)预防(fang)机(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)。规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)了学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)教(jiao)育(yu)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)和(he)(he)(he)调(diao)查评(ping)估制(zhi)(zhi)度(du),要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校教(jiao)育(yu)引导学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)建(jian)立(li)(li)平等(deng)、友善、互助的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)同(tong)学(xue)(xue)(xue)关系,开展(zhan)防(fang)治欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)专题教(jiao)育(yu);要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)期针(zhen)对(dui)(dui)(dui)全体(ti)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)开展(zhan)防(fang)治欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)专项调(diao)查,对(dui)(dui)(dui)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校是(shi)否存(cun)(cun)在欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)等(deng)情(qing)形进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)评(ping)估。四是(shi)建(jian)立(li)(li)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)关注(zhu)、干预和(he)(he)(he)制(zhi)(zhi)止机(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)。要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)教(jiao)职(zhi)工应(ying)(ying)当(dang)(dang)关注(zhu)可(ke)(ke)(ke)能(neng)处(chu)于(yu)弱势(shi)(shi)或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)特殊地位的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng),发(fa)(fa)现(xian)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)存(cun)(cun)在被孤(gu)立(li)(li)、排(pai)挤(ji)等(deng)情(qing)形的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),应(ying)(ying)当(dang)(dang)及时(shi)(shi)干预;发(fa)(fa)现(xian)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)有(you)明显的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)绪反常(chang)(chang)、身体(ti)损(sun)伤等(deng)情(qing)形的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),应(ying)(ying)当(dang)(dang)及时(shi)(shi)沟通了解情(qing)况,可(ke)(ke)(ke)能(neng)存(cun)(cun)在被欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)情(qing)形的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),应(ying)(ying)当(dang)(dang)及时(shi)(shi)向学(xue)(xue)(xue)校报告;发(fa)(fa)现(xian)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)实(shi)施(shi)(shi)对(dui)(dui)(dui)他人的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)行(xing)(xing)为的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),应(ying)(ying)当(dang)(dang)及时(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)止。五(wu)是(shi)建(jian)立(li)(li)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)认(ren)(ren)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)和(he)(he)(he)处(chu)置机(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)。要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校成立(li)(li)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)治理组织(zhi)。规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校接到(dao)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)报告后应(ying)(ying)当(dang)(dang)立(li)(li)即开展(zhan)调(diao)查,认(ren)(ren)为可(ke)(ke)(ke)能(neng)构成欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)应(ying)(ying)当(dang)(dang)及时(shi)(shi)提交学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)治理组织(zhi)认(ren)(ren)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)和(he)(he)(he)处(chu)置,对(dui)(dui)(dui)存(cun)(cun)在欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)行(xing)(xing)为的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)应(ying)(ying)当(dang)(dang)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)教(jiao)育(yu)惩戒或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)给予纪(ji)律处(chu)分(fen),必要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)还可(ke)(ke)(ke)以(yi)(yi)由法治副校长对(dui)(dui)(dui)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)及其(qi)家(jia)长进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)训导、教(jiao)育(yu);对(dui)(dui)(dui)被欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng),应(ying)(ying)当(dang)(dang)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)关爱(ai)和(he)(he)(he)帮扶。《规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)》还明确了不(bu)同(tong)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)之(zhi)间发(fa)(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事件(jian)后的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)处(chu)置机(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)。

  5. 问:《规定》对防治性侵害、性骚扰作了哪些规定?

  答:教职(zhi)工(gong)当中存在极个(ge)别害(hai)群之马(ma)对学(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)实(shi)施(shi)性(xing)(xing)(xing)骚(sao)(sao)扰(rao)、性(xing)(xing)(xing)侵(qin)(qin)害(hai)等(deng)(deng)行(xing)为,严重(zhong)侵(qin)(qin)害(hai)学(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)权(quan)益,性(xing)(xing)(xing)质恶劣、影(ying)响极坏,严重(zhong)违(wei)背(bei)法律和师德红线,严重(zhong)冲(chong)击社会道德底线。针对这(zhei)一(yi)问题(ti),《规(gui)定(ding)》将防(fang)治性(xing)(xing)(xing)侵(qin)(qin)害(hai)、性(xing)(xing)(xing)骚(sao)(sao)扰(rao)纳入(ru)专项保护(hu),要(yao)求学(xue)校建立(li)健全教职(zhi)工(gong)与学(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)交(jiao)往行(xing)为准则、学(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)宿舍安全管理规(gui)定(ding)、视频(pin)监控管理规(gui)定(ding)等(deng)(deng)制(zhi)(zhi)度,建立(li)预(yu)防(fang)、报告、处(chu)置性(xing)(xing)(xing)侵(qin)(qin)害(hai)工(gong)作机制(zhi)(zhi)。同(tong)时,明确规(gui)定(ding)学(xue)校应当采取必(bi)要(yao)措施(shi)预(yu)防(fang)并制(zhi)(zhi)止教职(zhi)工(gong)以及其他进入(ru)校园的人员实(shi)施(shi)六类行(xing)为:(一(yi))与学(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)发(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)恋(lian)爱关系(xi)、性(xing)(xing)(xing)关系(xi);(二)抚摸、故意触碰学(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)身体(ti)特定(ding)部位等(deng)(deng)猥(wei)亵行(xing)为;(三(san))向学(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)作出具有调戏、挑逗(dou)或者(zhe)具有性(xing)(xing)(xing)暗示的言行(xing);(四)向学(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)展示传播包含色情、淫秽内容的信息、书刊、影(ying)片、音(yin)像、图片或者(zhe)其他淫秽物品(pin);(五)持有淫秽、色情视听、图文资料;(六)其他构成性(xing)(xing)(xing)骚(sao)(sao)扰(rao)、性(xing)(xing)(xing)侵(qin)(qin)害(hai)的违(wei)法犯罪行(xing)为。

  6. 问:规定有很多制度创新,学校在贯彻实施时应该如何把握?

  答:《规(gui)定》对标(biao)对表(biao)中(zhong)央关(guan)(guan)于(yu)未成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)护(hu)的(de)决策部(bu)署和(he)(he)未成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)护(hu)法的(de)规(gui)定,结合(he)相关(guan)(guan)规(gui)章制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度,统筹谋划(hua)、积极创新,系统构建(jian)了未成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)学校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)保(bao)护(hu)的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度体系。贯彻落实《规(gui)定》要求(qiu),学校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)应当做好(hao)以下四个方面(mian)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo):一是(shi)全面(mian)履行未成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)护(hu)职责(ze)各(ge)项(xiang)要求(qiu),切实保(bao)护(hu)未成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)合(he)法权(quan)利;二(er)是(shi)做好(hao)学生合(he)法权(quan)益损害重大问题的(de)专(zhuan)项(xiang)保(bao)护(hu),建(jian)立学生欺凌(ling)防控和(he)(he)预防性(xing)侵(qin)害、性(xing)骚(sao)扰(rao)(rao)等专(zhuan)项(xiang)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度,建(jian)立对学生欺凌(ling)、性(xing)侵(qin)害、性(xing)骚(sao)扰(rao)(rao)行为的(de)零容(rong)忍处理机(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)和(he)(he)受伤害学生的(de)关(guan)(guan)爱、帮扶机(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi);三是(shi)健全学校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)管(guan)理制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度,制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)定规(gui)范教职工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)、学生行为的(de)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)规(gui)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)纪,按照要求(qiu)做好(hao)相关(guan)(guan)管(guan)理工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo);四是(shi)完(wan)善学校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)未成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)护(hu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)机(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),按照要求(qiu)建(jian)立未成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)护(hu)专(zhuan)职机(ji)构,指(zhi)定一名校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)领导直(zhi)接负责(ze)学生保(bao)护(hu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo),并明确具(ju)体的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)机(ji)构及(ji)相关(guan)(guan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)要求(qiu),通过专(zhuan)职机(ji)构推动未成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)护(hu)各(ge)项(xiang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)机(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、管(guan)理要求(qiu)等落实落地。

  7. 问:《规定》和教育部正在推进的“五项管理”怎么衔接?

  答:近(jin)年来,教(jiao)(jiao)育部(bu)和地方教(jiao)(jiao)育行政部(bu)门不(bu)断加(jia)强和改进(jin)中小(xiao)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li),出(chu)台了一(yi)(yi)系列(lie)文(wen)(wen)件,近(jin)期又(you)出(chu)台了“五(wu)项(xiang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)”的(de)(de)文(wen)(wen)件,取得了明(ming)(ming)(ming)显成(cheng)效。《规定(ding)》与“五(wu)项(xiang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)”的(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)逐项(xiang)进(jin)行了衔接,将政策(ce)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)转化(hua)规章的(de)(de)制(zhi)度规范。一(yi)(yi)是(shi)(shi)作(zuo)业(ye)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)。学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)应当加(jia)强作(zuo)业(ye)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li),不(bu)得超出(chu)规定(ding)增加(jia)作(zuo)业(ye)量,加(jia)重学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)习负(fu)担。二是(shi)(shi)睡(shui)眠管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)。《规定(ding)》将睡(shui)眠管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)内容纳入休息(xi)权(quan)保(bao)护中,要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)规定(ding)科学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)合(he)理(li)(li)(li)安排学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生在校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)作(zuo)息(xi)时(shi)间(jian),不(bu)得统一(yi)(yi)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生在规定(ding)的(de)(de)上课(ke)时(shi)间(jian)前到(dao)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)参加(jia)课(ke)程(cheng)教(jiao)(jiao)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)活(huo)动,并(bing)对(dui)集体(ti)(ti)(ti)补课(ke)作(zuo)出(chu)相关的(de)(de)禁止性要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)。三是(shi)(shi)手机管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)。规定(ding)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)对(dui)手机管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)权(quan)限,明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)规定(ding)除(chu)教(jiao)(jiao)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)外(wai),禁止手机等(deng)智能终端产品(pin)进(jin)课(ke)堂。四(si)是(shi)(shi)读物(wu)(wu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)。明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)加(jia)强读物(wu)(wu)和校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)园文(wen)(wen)化(hua)环境管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)职责,禁止有(you)毒有(you)害(hai)读物(wu)(wu)、图片、视(shi)听作(zuo)品(pin)等(deng)进(jin)入校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)园。五(wu)是(shi)(shi)体(ti)(ti)(ti)质管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)。明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生体(ti)(ti)(ti)质监测(ce)制(zhi)度及学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)体(ti)(ti)(ti)育运动场(chang)地适当开放要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)。在这五(wu)项(xiang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)之外(wai),《规定(ding)》还明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)要(yao)(yao)建(jian)立药品(pin)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)、网络管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)等(deng)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)制(zhi)度,构建(jian)了完善(shan)的(de)(de)保(bao)护未(wei)成(cheng)年学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生的(de)(de)制(zhi)度体(ti)(ti)(ti)系。

  8. 问:《规定》对教职工行为提出了哪些禁止性要求?

  答:教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)师(shi)承担着(zhe)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)书育人(ren)的重要(yao)使命(ming)和塑(su)造(zao)灵(ling)魂、塑(su)造(zao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)命(ming)、塑(su)造(zao)新(xin)人(ren)的神(shen)圣职(zhi)责。教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)职(zhi)工(gong)的一(yi)(yi)言一(yi)(yi)行会(hui)(hui)对学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)直接(jie)的、重要(yao)的影响。教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)职(zhi)工(gong)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)职(zhi)务便(bian)利(li)(li)(li)(li)谋取利(li)(li)(li)(li)益(yi)(yi),不(bu)仅侵害(hai)学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)权益(yi)(yi),而且严重损害(hai)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)师(shi)形(xing)象,甚(shen)至构成违(wei)法犯罪。为(wei)规范教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)师(shi)行为(wei),保护学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)权益(yi)(yi),《规定(ding)(ding)》对教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)职(zhi)工(gong)行为(wei)提出了(le)六项禁止(zhi)性(xing)要(yao)求:(一(yi)(yi))利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)管理(li)学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的职(zhi)务便(bian)利(li)(li)(li)(li)或(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)招生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)考试(shi)、评(ping)奖评(ping)优、推(tui)荐评(ping)价等(deng)机会(hui)(hui),以(yi)任(ren)何形(xing)式向学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)及其(qi)家(jia)长(zhang)索取、收受(shou)(shou)财物(wu)或(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)接(jie)受(shou)(shou)宴请、其(qi)他利(li)(li)(li)(li)益(yi)(yi);(二)以(yi)牟(mou)取利(li)(li)(li)(li)益(yi)(yi)为(wei)目的,向学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)推(tui)销(xiao)或(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)要(yao)求、指定(ding)(ding)学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)购买特定(ding)(ding)辅(fu)导(dao)书、练(lian)习(xi)册等(deng)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)辅(fu)材料或(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)其(qi)他商品、服务;(三)组(zu)织、要(yao)求学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)参加校外(wai)有偿补课,或(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)与(yu)(yu)校外(wai)机构、个人(ren)合(he)作向学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)提供其(qi)他有偿服务;(四)诱导(dao)、组(zu)织或(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)要(yao)求学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)及其(qi)家(jia)长(zhang)登录(lu)特定(ding)(ding)经营性(xing)网(wang)站,参与(yu)(yu)视频直播、网(wang)络购物(wu)、网(wang)络投票、刷票等(deng)活动(dong);(五)非法提供、泄露学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)信(xin)息(xi)或(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)所掌握的学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)信(xin)息(xi)牟(mou)取利(li)(li)(li)(li)益(yi)(yi);(六)其(qi)他利(li)(li)(li)(li)用(yong)管理(li)学(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的职(zhi)权牟(mou)取不(bu)正当利(li)(li)(li)(li)益(yi)(yi)的行为(wei)。

  9. 问:《规定》建立了哪些保护工作机制?

  答:健(jian)(jian)全(quan)(quan)完善的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)机(ji)制(zhi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)未(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)人学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)保护(hu)(hu)各(ge)项制(zhi)度能够有(you)效(xiao)(xiao)实(shi)施的(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)键。《规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)》构建了(le)八大(da)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)机(ji)制(zhi)。一(yi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)领(ling)导(dao)机(ji)制(zhi)和组织机(ji)制(zhi)。要求(qiu)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)指定(ding)(ding)(ding)一(yi)名校(xiao)领(ling)导(dao)直(zhi)接负(fu)责(ze)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保护(hu)(hu)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo),并明确具体的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)机(ji)构和人员(yuan)。规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)有(you)条件的(de)(de)(de)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)可以设立学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保护(hu)(hu)专(zhuan)(zhuan)员(yuan),旨在打造一(yi)支(zhi)专(zhuan)(zhuan)门队(dui)伍、提(ti)高工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)专(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)化水平。二(er)是(shi)(shi)(shi)教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)机(ji)制(zhi)。规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)要加(jia)强对学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)安全(quan)(quan)教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)、心理健(jian)(jian)康教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)、环境(jing)保护(hu)(hu)教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)、健(jian)(jian)康教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)、禁毒和预防艾滋病教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)、青春(chun)期教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)、性教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)、法(fa)治(zhi)教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)等(deng),提(ti)高学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)自我保护(hu)(hu)意识和能力(li)。三是(shi)(shi)(shi)专(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)合(he)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)机(ji)制(zhi)。学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)要积(ji)极引(yin)入校(xiao)外(wai)专(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)力(li)量,参与(yu)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保护(hu)(hu)、专(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)辅导(dao)和矫(jiao)治(zhi)帮(bang)扶。要加(jia)强与(yu)有(you)关(guan)(guan)部(bu)门的(de)(de)(de)协(xie)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)。四是(shi)(shi)(shi)民主参与(yu)机(ji)制(zhi)。要求(qiu)充分保障学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)、家(jia)(jia)(jia)长(zhang)的(de)(de)(de)参与(yu)权(quan)。规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)应(ying)当(dang)发挥学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)会、少代会、共青团等(deng)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)组织的(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)用(yong),指导(dao)、支(zhi)持学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)参与(yu)权(quan)益(yi)保护(hu)(hu)。五(wu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)家(jia)(jia)(jia)校(xiao)沟(gou)通机(ji)制(zhi)。家(jia)(jia)(jia)庭(ting)、家(jia)(jia)(jia)长(zhang)是(shi)(shi)(shi)未(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)人保护(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)(de)重要主体,家(jia)(jia)(jia)校(xiao)协(xie)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)是(shi)(shi)(shi)做好未(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)人保护(hu)(hu)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)键。《规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)》要求(qiu)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)建立与(yu)家(jia)(jia)(jia)长(zhang)有(you)效(xiao)(xiao)联系机(ji)制(zhi),加(jia)强日常沟(gou)通,向家(jia)(jia)(jia)长(zhang)及时告知学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)身体及心理状况。六(liu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)强制(zhi)报告机(ji)制(zhi)。落实(shi)未(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)人保护(hu)(hu)法(fa)要求(qiu),规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)和教(jiao)职(zhi)工(gong)发现学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)遭受或疑似遭受家(jia)(jia)(jia)庭(ting)暴力(li)、虐待(dai)、遗(yi)弃(qi)、长(zhang)期无人照(zhao)料、失踪(zong)等(deng)不(bu)法(fa)侵害(hai)(hai)以及面(mian)临不(bu)法(fa)侵害(hai)(hai)危险(xian)的(de)(de)(de),应(ying)当(dang)依照(zhao)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)及时向公(gong)安、民政、教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)等(deng)有(you)关(guan)(guan)部(bu)门报告。七是(shi)(shi)(shi)首问负(fu)责(ze)机(ji)制(zhi)。规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)教(jiao)职(zhi)员(yuan)工(gong)发现学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)权(quan)益(yi)受到(dao)侵害(hai)(hai),属于(yu)本(ben)职(zhi)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)范(fan)围(wei)的(de)(de)(de),应(ying)当(dang)及时处(chu)理;不(bu)属于(yu)本(ben)职(zhi)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)范(fan)围(wei)或者不(bu)能处(chu)理的(de)(de)(de)事项,应(ying)当(dang)及时报告。八是(shi)(shi)(shi)帮(bang)扶救助机(ji)制(zhi)。《规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)》要求(qiu),学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)因遭受遗(yi)弃(qi)、虐待(dai)向学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)请求(qiu)保护(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)(de),学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)不(bu)得拒绝、推诿,需要采取救助措施的(de)(de)(de),应(ying)当(dang)先(xian)行救助;学(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)要关(guan)(guan)心爱护(hu)(hu)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng),为身体或者心理受到(dao)伤害(hai)(hai)的(de)(de)(de)学(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)提(ti)供相应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)心理辅导(dao)、帮(bang)扶教(jiao)育(yu)(yu)(yu)。

  10. 问:政府部门怎么支持和监督学校未成年人保护工作?

  答(da):未(wei)成年学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校保(bao)(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)(hu)不(bu)仅是(shi)(shi)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校的(de)(de)职(zhi)(zhi)责(ze),需要政(zheng)府给予(yu)支持保(bao)(bao)(bao)障,也需要政(zheng)府加(jia)强(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)监(jian)(jian)督(du)(du)指导(dao)(dao)。一(yi)是(shi)(shi)建(jian)立(li)(li)协同(tong)机(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)。教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)部(bu)(bu)门(men)(men)及(ji)人(ren)民检察(cha)院、人(ren)民法(fa)(fa)院、公安、司法(fa)(fa)、民政(zheng)、应急管理(li)等部(bu)(bu)门(men)(men)应当(dang)建(jian)立(li)(li)协同(tong)机(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi),共同(tong)加(jia)强(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)指导(dao)(dao)与监(jian)(jian)督(du)(du)。二(er)是(shi)(shi)落实从业禁止。教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)部(bu)(bu)门(men)(men)应当(dang)会(hui)(hui)同(tong)有(you)关部(bu)(bu)门(men)(men)健全(quan)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)职(zhi)(zhi)工(gong)(gong)从业禁止人(ren)员(yuan)名单和(he)查(cha)询(xun)机(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi),指导(dao)(dao)、监(jian)(jian)督(du)(du)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校健全(quan)准入和(he)定期查(cha)询(xun)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)。三是(shi)(shi)提供专(zhuan)(zhuan)业服务(wu)(wu)。教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)部(bu)(bu)门(men)(men)可(ke)以(yi)通过政(zheng)府购买服务(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)方式(shi),组(zu)织社(she)会(hui)(hui)组(zu)织、专(zhuan)(zhuan)业机(ji)(ji)构(gou)及(ji)其他(ta)社(she)会(hui)(hui)力量,为学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校提专(zhuan)(zhuan)业服务(wu)(wu)。四是(shi)(shi)建(jian)立(li)(li)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)队伍。教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)部(bu)(bu)门(men)(men)应当(dang)指定专(zhuan)(zhuan)门(men)(men)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)或者人(ren)员(yuan)承担(dan)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生保(bao)(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)监(jian)(jian)督(du)(du)职(zhi)(zhi)责(ze),有(you)条件(jian)的(de)(de)可(ke)以(yi)设立(li)(li)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生保(bao)(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)(hu)专(zhuan)(zhuan)兼职(zhi)(zhi)监(jian)(jian)察(cha)员(yuan)负责(ze)未(wei)成年人(ren)保(bao)(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)作。五是(shi)(shi)建(jian)立(li)(li)投(tou)(tou)诉(su)渠道。教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)部(bu)(bu)门(men)(men)建(jian)立(li)(li)投(tou)(tou)诉(su)举(ju)报途径,受理(li)对(dui)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校或者教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)职(zhi)(zhi)工(gong)(gong)违反本(ben)规(gui)定或者其他(ta)法(fa)(fa)律法(fa)(fa)规(gui)、侵害学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生权(quan)利的(de)(de)投(tou)(tou)诉(su)、举(ju)报。六是(shi)(shi)发展(zhan)(zhan)社(she)会(hui)(hui)组(zu)织。县(xian)级(ji)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)部(bu)(bu)门(men)(men)应当(dang)会(hui)(hui)同(tong)民政(zheng)部(bu)(bu)门(men)(men),推动(dong)设立(li)(li)未(wei)成年学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生保(bao)(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)(hu)社(she)会(hui)(hui)组(zu)织,协助开展(zhan)(zhan)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生保(bao)(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)作。七是(shi)(shi)加(jia)强(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)考核(he)评(ping)估。教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)部(bu)(bu)门(men)(men)应当(dang)建(jian)立(li)(li)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生保(bao)(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)作评(ping)估制(zhi)(zhi)度(du),定期对(dui)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校履行(xing)保(bao)(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)(hu)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生法(fa)(fa)定职(zhi)(zhi)责(ze)情况进行(xing)评(ping)估。八是(shi)(shi)强(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)化(hua)督(du)(du)导(dao)(dao)问责(ze)。规(gui)定各级(ji)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)督(du)(du)导(dao)(dao)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)应当(dang)将(jiang)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生保(bao)(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)作情况纳入政(zheng)府履行(xing)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)职(zhi)(zhi)责(ze)评(ping)价和(he)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校督(du)(du)导(dao)(dao)评(ping)估的(de)(de)内容。

  11. 问:学校及其教职工没有履行保护职责的,怎么问责?

  答:《规(gui)定(ding)(ding)》明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)了学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)及教(jiao)职(zhi)工(gong)不履(lv)行(xing)(xing)(xing)责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)具体(ti)处(chu)(chu)理办(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa),细化(hua)和完善法(fa)(fa)(fa)律责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren),为(wei)下(xia)一(yi)步加(jia)强管理问责(ze)(ze)提供了更为(wei)明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)依(yi)据。一(yi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)侵权(quan)责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)。学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)行(xing)(xing)(xing)为(wei)直(zhi)接(jie)侵害(hai)未(wei)成(cheng)年人合(he)法(fa)(fa)(fa)权(quan)益的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)负(fu)责(ze)(ze)人、直(zhi)接(jie)责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)人或者其他责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)人员(yuan)以(yi)及学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)要(yao)承(cheng)担相应责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)。二是(shi)(shi)(shi)明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)管理责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)。学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)未(wei)按(an)本(ben)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)建立(li)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生权(quan)利保护(hu)机(ji)制(zhi),或者制(zhi)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)校(xiao)规(gui)违(wei)反(fan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)律法(fa)(fa)(fa)规(gui)和本(ben)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),要(yao)承(cheng)担相应责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)。三是(shi)(shi)(shi)明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)监(jian)督责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)。学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)未(wei)履(lv)行(xing)(xing)(xing)对(dui)教(jiao)职(zhi)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)管理、监(jian)督责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren),致(zhi)使发生教(jiao)职(zhi)工(gong)严重(zhong)侵害(hai)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生身心健(jian)康的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)违(wei)法(fa)(fa)(fa)犯罪行(xing)(xing)(xing)为(wei),或者有包(bao)庇、隐(yin)瞒不报(bao),威胁、阻拦报(bao)案,妨碍调查(cha)、对(dui)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生打击报(bao)复等行(xing)(xing)(xing)为(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),承(cheng)担行(xing)(xing)(xing)政责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)乃(nai)至法(fa)(fa)(fa)律责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)。四是(shi)(shi)(shi)明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)教(jiao)职(zhi)工(gong)侵权(quan)责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)。教(jiao)职(zhi)工(gong)违(wei)反(fan)本(ben)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),要(yao)依(yi)照(zhao)《事业(ye)单位工(gong)作人员(yuan)处(chu)(chu)分(fen)暂行(xing)(xing)(xing)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)》《中小学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)教(jiao)师违(wei)反(fan)职(zhi)业(ye)道德(de)行(xing)(xing)(xing)为(wei)处(chu)(chu)理办(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》等规(gui)定(ding)(ding)予以(yi)处(chu)(chu)理。其中,明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)有性骚扰(rao)、性侵害(hai)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生行(xing)(xing)(xing)为(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),应当依(yi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)予以(yi)开除或者解聘(pin);有教(jiao)师资(zi)格(ge)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),由主管教(jiao)育行(xing)(xing)(xing)政部(bu)门(men)(men)撤销教(jiao)师资(zi)格(ge),纳入从业(ye)禁止(zhi)人员(yuan)名单;涉(she)嫌(xian)犯罪的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),移送有关部(bu)门(men)(men)依(yi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)追究责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)。五是(shi)(shi)(shi)明(ming)(ming)(ming)确(que)教(jiao)育部(bu)门(men)(men)失(shi)职(zhi)责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)。教(jiao)育行(xing)(xing)(xing)政部(bu)门(men)(men)未(wei)履(lv)行(xing)(xing)(xing)对(dui)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)指(zhi)导(dao)(dao)、监(jian)督职(zhi)责(ze)(ze),辖(xia)区内学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)出现严重(zhong)侵害(hai)学(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生权(quan)益情形的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),由上级(ji)教(jiao)育行(xing)(xing)(xing)政部(bu)门(men)(men)、教(jiao)育督导(dao)(dao)机(ji)构(gou)责(ze)(ze)令改正、予以(yi)通报(bao)批评、诫(jie)勉谈话,情节严重(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)依(yi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)追究主要(yao)负(fu)责(ze)(ze)人或者直(zhi)接(jie)责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)人的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)责(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)(ren)。

  12. 问:推动《规定》贯彻落实,下一步有什么要求和举措?

  答:《规(gui)(gui)定(ding)》对(dui)学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)管(guan)理(li)(li)提(ti)(ti)出了很多要(yao)求,涉及到学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)治校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)办学(xue)理(li)(li)念的(de)(de)更新、制度(du)的(de)(de)重(zhong)构(gou)(gou)和(he)(he)能(neng)力(li)的(de)(de)提(ti)(ti)升。下一步,教育部将指导各级(ji)教育部门(men)和(he)(he)学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)做(zuo)好学(xue)习(xi)宣传,准确理(li)(li)解《规(gui)(gui)定(ding)》精神(shen)、准确把握工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)要(yao)求,确保(bao)(bao)在9月(yue)1日《规(gui)(gui)定(ding)》正式实施前,教育系统干部师生能(neng)够普遍(bian)知晓(xiao)和(he)(he)理(li)(li)解《规(gui)(gui)定(ding)》的(de)(de)精神(shen)和(he)(he)要(yao)求;要(yao)健全(quan)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)机制,加强与人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)民检察(cha)院(yuan)、人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)民法院(yuan)、公安、司法、民政(zheng)、应急管(guan)理(li)(li)等(deng)部门(men)以及从事未成年(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)群(qun)团组织的(de)(de)沟通(tong)协作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo),建立(li)协同机制,形(xing)成工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)合力(li)。要(yao)完善教育内部工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)机制,明确专门(men)机构(gou)(gou)和(he)(he)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)员(yuan)负(fu)责未成年(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo);要(yao)加强支持保(bao)(bao)障,加大经费、人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)员(yuan)等(deng)方面的(de)(de)投入力(li)度(du),为学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)提(ti)(ti)供必要(yao)条(tiao)件(jian)、解决实际困(kun)难;要(yao)推动(dong)基(ji)层试点,教育部将会同有关机构(gou)(gou),开(kai)展未成年(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)保(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)试点,给予(yu)相应支持,组织开(kai)展培训,促进地方、学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)不断提(ti)(ti)升未成年(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)学(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)保(bao)(bao)护(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)能(neng)力(li)和(he)(he)水平。

(责任编辑:曹建)
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